عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Since in looking at communication from a process-oriented point of view, the topic of “effect” finds prominence, this article aims at examining the theories of mass media effects, the changes they have undergone, and the ways in which media influence audiences. Meanwhile, focusing on the contents of authentic Islamic texts, including the Quran and authentic Hadiths coming down to us from the Prophet Muhammad and the holy Imams (peace be upon them), the topic of positive effects on audiences will be discussed.
In the field of media studies, much research has been done and various discussions have been presented about the effects of mass media on audience attitudes, assumptions and behaviors, and about their depth and intensity, all appearing in an eighty-year time span. It must be pointed out that almost all such studies agree on the effects of the media as a basic assumption, although there is no consensus about its intensity and power as yet. From a commonsensical point of view, mass media have some degree of effect on ethical issues, beliefs and behaviors.
The historical process of considering the effects of media dates back to early 20th century, beginning with the presumption that media have strong effects on audience members (hypodermic needle theory), later replaced with limited-effect theory. During the same time, a two-step flow hypothesis was also presented. In the 1950s and 60s we can see a re-emergence of powerful-effect model, followed by Gerbner’s cultivation theory, McLuhan’s theories concerning media effects, negotiated media influence, spiral of silence, etc.